Transit declaration (T-1)
Transit declaration T-1 should accompany all cargoes of non-European origin (for example, from the USA, the countries of Asia) in the territory of EU and the cargoes arriving from the European customs warehouses (bonded/customs warehouse).
Transit declaration Т-1 for the cargoes arriving by land is filled in at the border of EU, if a cargo arrives from outside of EU, whether by a supplier/supplier’s agent or a carrier/forwarder’s agent — if a cargo arrived from a customs warehouse inside of EU.
Т-1 declaration for airfreights and also for the cargoes shipped by sea from the non-EU countries is filled in directly at the airport/port of arrival by an authorized agent. If a cargo was sent by air from a EU country and requires Т-1, the given declaration should be submitted by a consignor/supplier or the cargo should be accompanied with the Airwaybill having a special mark.
Transit declaration Т-1 is prepared on the basis of an invoice and a packing list.
Export declaration (EX-1)
Export declaration EX-1 for the cargoes produced and sold from the EU countries is a conventional international document that confirms export of goods. The fact of export of goods beyond EU is confirmed with a stamp of the customs authorities performing customs clearance of a car to Russia. The original of a stamped export declaration is sent by mail at the consignor’s address. The given fact allows the buyer of the goods to avoid payment of the Intra-European VAT.
ЕХ-1 declaration should accompany the cargoes of European origin transported from a transit warehouse or a supplier’s warehouse beyond the borders of the EU countries.
ЕХ-1 declaration is filled in by a supplier/supplier’s agent or a carrier/forwarder’s agent who have a corresponding license for such an activity.
Bill of Lading
Bill of Lading is a shipping document (and a document of title at the same time!) used during the transportations by sea and transportations using sea transport. Bill of Lading is a document issued by a carrier to a consignor in witness of acceptance of cargo for its transportation by sea with the obligation to deliver the cargo to the port of destination and transfer it to a legal holder of the Bill of Lading. Taking into account that Bill of Lading is a document of title and its holding according to a trade custom is in many respects equivalent to possession of the goods, handing of Bill of Lading usually have the same consequences as delivery of the goods. As a rule, three and more copies of Bill of Lading are prepared with the same content and date: for the consignor or his forwarder, for the consignee and for the cargo owner. All copies of the Bill of lading constituting the so-called full set are deemed originals and imprinted with the stamp "Original". Only one (the first one) of the Bill of Lading original copies is usually considered the document of title. The Bill of Lading copies are imprinted with the stamp "Copy" or printed on the forms of the colour different from that used for the original form. If goods were transferred according to one of the Bill of Lading copies, other copies become ineffective.
TIR Carnet is a customs transit international document issued by a guaranteeing association authorized by customs authorities and used for cargo transportation in most cases with the customs seals and locks in vehicles and containers according to the Customs Convention on the International Transport of Goods under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention).
TIR Carnets used nowadays consist of 14 or 20 sheets (i.e. of 7 or 10 sets) and are intended accordingly for transportation of goods through the territory of 7 or 10 states.
In Russia, TIR Carnet is issued by the Association of International Automobile Carriers (ASIAC), printed in French except for the first inseparable yellow sheet that is printed in English or Russian. TIR Carnet has a period of validity.
Upon completion of transportation in compliance with the TIR procedure and with the corresponding seals of the customs office of destination or departure, TIR Carnet is returned to a carrier and serves as a confirmation of appropriate completion of the TIR procedure.
Road Waybill (CMR)
Road Waybill (CMR) is a shipping document confirming availability of a contract between a carrier and a consignor on the road cargo transportation services. In case of international road transportation, this document should contain the following information specified in the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR): shipping date, designation of cargo that is subject to transportation, carrier’s name and address, consignee’s name, time of delivery, cost of transportation. Road Waybill is signed by a carrier and a consignor. Road Waybill is not a document of title, it can not be endorsed; the cargo is to be transferred to a consignee specified in it.
Airwaybill is a document issued by a consignor or on behalf of his name and confirms availability of a contract between a consignor and a carrier on transportation of cargoes by the carrier’s airlines.
Airwaybill is filled in by a consignor in three original copies and handed to a carrier together with the goods. The first copy is marked “for carrier” and sighed by a consignor; the second copy is marked “for consignee” and sighed by a consignor and a carrier and accompanies the goods; the third copy is sighed by a carrier and returned to the consignor upon acceptance of the goods. The Airwaybill content: names of airports of departure and arrival, documents attached to the Airwaybill, declared value, payment of transportation charges, date of Airwaybill, etc.
Airwaybill is neither a document of title, nor a transfer document. Its role is to prove that the contract of carriage was concluded, goods were accepted for transportation and terms of transportation were followed. It can be used as a customs declaration containing the detailed description of cargo.